Elucidating the underlying cause of unexplained syncope, palpitations or other possible arrhythmia-related symptoms is a formidable clinical challenge. Cardiac monitoring supplements the most important “ test ” in patients with syncope or palpitations, that of a thoughtful history and physical examination. Ideally, comprehensive physiologic monitoring during spontaneous symptoms would constitute what, at present, is an unattainable gold standard test for establishing a cause. Short of that goal, establishing an accurate symptom-rhythm correlation can often provide a diagnosis. Ambulatory outpatient monitoring is a powerful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmias. Evolving technologies have provided a vast array of monitoring options for patients suspected of having cardiac arrhythmias, with each modality differing in duration of monitoring, quality of recording, convenience and invasiveness. Holter monitors, event monitors and external loop recorders are non-invasive and provide easily accessible short-term monitoring solutions. In instances where the diagnosis remains elusive, a more long-term strategy with an implantable loop recorder may be the preferred path.