Cardiogenic shock continues to be the most common cause of death in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. It has also been frequently associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and patients with co-morbidities. Cardiogenic shock presents with low systolic blood pressure and clinical signs of hypoperfusion. Rapid diagnosis and supportive therapy in the form of medications, airway support and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation is required. Initial stabilization can be followed by reperfusion by fibrinolytic therapy, emergent percutaneous intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The latter two have been found to decrease mortality in the long term. Research is being carried out on the role of inflammatory mediators in the clinical manifestation of cardiogenic shock. Mechanical support devices also show promise in the future.
Keywords: Cardiogenic shock, fibrinolytic therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial infarction, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, coronary artery bypass grafting
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