This review covers recent developments in the area of morphine synthesis and biosynthesis. Literature is reviewed since the publication of the last major review. The first part of the chapter discusses recent advancements in biosynthesis of morphine alkaloids. Total syntheses published since 1996 are reviewed next and the third section discusses all published approaches to morphine skeleton. At the end of the of the chapter, an additional reference list is provided for synthesis of medicinally important derivatives, improvements in alkoloid interconversion, as well as a list of all dissertations dealing with morphine synthesis.