Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, non-ulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancers. It is estimated that more than half of the human race is affected by this organism. Although effective treatments are available which will eliminate the organism in about 90percent of cases in developed countries, the pandemic occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection coupled with its ability to develop resistance to our current arsenal of antimicrobial regimens and subsequently reinfect patients makes the pathogenic potential of this microorganism a major global health concern. Provided is a review of the current and evolving therapeutic regimens used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, the difficulties associated with in vitro drug screening, as well as potentially new therapeutic targets. In addition, the discovery, the unique physiology, biochemistry, and pathogenicity of this remarkable microorganism is examined.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Gastritis, Non-ulcer dyspepsia, Peptic ulcer disease, Gastric cancers, Compylobacter jejuni, Adhesion factor, Urease, Inflammation, VacA
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