In the last few years, significant advances in gene therapy have been made as a result of advances in many areas of molecular and cell biology, including the improvement of both viral and nonviral gene delivery systems, discovery of new therapeutic genes, better understanding of mechanism of disease progression, exploration of tissue specific promoter, receptor- and antibody-mediated targeting delivery, and development of better prodrug enzyme / prodrug systems. In this article, viral based gene therapy for prostate cancer will be reviewed and discussed. The areas of emphasis in this review are choice of viral vectors, comparison of delivery routes, development of prostate-targeted viruses, choice of therapeutic genes and strategies including corrective gene therapy (tumor suppressor gene and anti-oncogene gene approaches), suicide gene therapy, programmed cell death therapy, immunomodulation therapy, and conditional oncolytic virus approach. Among them, several examples will be discussed in detail for the scientific basis and therapeutic applications. In addition, prostate cancer gene therapy clinical trials, unresolved problems and future directions in this field will also be described.