Neurotrophins (NTFs) are a family of polypeptide growth factors that control the apoptotic death or survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons. NTFs also regulate several other cell populations such as lymphoid, epithelial, oligoglia, and mast cells. Disregulation of the NTFs or their receptors plays a key role (etiological or upstream) in certain human pathologies. Hyperactivity may lead to inflammatory pain, or some forms of cancer by autocrine / paracrine growth. Loss of activity may lead to neurodegeneration, neuropathic pain, or some forms of cancer by absence of differentiation. Consequently the NTFs and their receptors are important therapeutic targets, and pharmacological modulation may have applications ranging from treatment of chronic or acute neurodegeneration, some forms of cancer, and chronic pain (with agonists), and some forms of cancer or acute pain (with antagonists).