There is serious concern about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human health. Various mutagens, which pollute air, water, and food, possibly induce mutations in humans, and are suspected of causing cancer. Environmental mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heterocyclic amines are known to bind to nucleotides, resulting in the formation of DNA adducts. Some DNA adducts are fixed as mutations through replication of DNA. Reactive oxygen species generated by pollutants also induce the formation of DNA adducts. DNA adducts have been detected as a marker for the exposure of humans and wild life to mutagens. Because of its high sensitivity the 32P-postlabel-thin layer chromatography (TLC) method is widely used for the analysis of DNA adducts formed by PAH and related bulky compounds. However, new systems are required for detecting mutations induced in genomic DNA in vivo to monitor environmental mutagens. Recently, transgenic animals, in which a target gene for detecting mutations is integrated, have been developed. With these transgenic animals, not only mutant frequency but mutation spectra can be determined. We review here recent advances in the detection of DNA adducts formed by environmental pollutants and their application for biological monitoring of environmental mutagens. We also discuss transgenic animals as important tools for evaluating the total mutagenic potential of environmental chemicals.