Angiogenesis is a complex process, where several cell types and mediators interact to establish a specific microenvironment suitable for the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels. Such biological processes occur in several physiological conditions, such as embryo development and wound healing, as well as in pathological conditions, including tumours and diabetic retinopathy. T lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes fully participate in the angiogenic process by secreting cytokines that may control endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, their survival and apoptosis, as well as their migration and activation. Angiogenesis is the result of a net balance between the activities exerted by positive and negative regulators. This balance is conceptually very similar to that of the Th1 / Th2 cells that modulate an appropriate and specific immune response. Th1 or Th2 cytokines may control angiogenesis directly, by acting on cell growth and differentiation, indirectly by inducing the release of other cytokines in the microenvironment, and by modulating the expression of specific receptors, involved in the control of angiogenic processes, such as EC proliferation and migration. In this review we will mainly discuss the role of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in the angiogenic process, emphasizing the complexity of the cytokine and leukocyte / EC network, and highlighting the care that needs to be taken when designing new therapeutic interventions involving Th1 and Th2 cytokines.