Many cytokines have been reported to be increased in human and animal models with cardiovascular diseases. Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied with an inflammatory reaction which induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. The inflammatory reaction has been investigated in animal models of MI or myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The mechanisms by which cytokine cascade is activated in the infarcted myocardium have been recently elucidated. Several hematopoietic growth factors including interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factors (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) have been reported to be positive regulators of granulopoiesis and act at different stages of myeloid cell development. G-CSF plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and survival of myeloid progenitor cells. G-CSF also causes a marked increase in the release of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into the peripheral blood circulation, a process termed mobilization. Although cardiac myocytes have been considered as terminally differentiated cells, it has been recently reported that there are many proliferating cardiac myocytes after MI in human heart. After it was demonstrated that bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into cardiac myocytes, myocardial regeneration has been widely investigated. Recently, G-CSF has been reported to improve cardiac function and reduces mortality after acute MI. Although the mechanism by which G-CSF ameliorates cardiac dysfunction is not fully understood, there is the possibility that G-CSF may regenerate cardiac myocytes and blood vessels through mobilization of BMSCs. In the future, cytokinemediated regeneration therapy may become to be a novel therapeutic strategy for MI.