Fluorescence Polarization Assays (FPAs) have been shown to have great utility in the detection of infectious diseases. Examples are presented of the use of O-polysaccharides (OPSs) for the detection of antibodies in serum, whole milk and whole blood to gram negative organisms (Brucella spp., Salmonella spp.). The use of proteins and peptides are also described for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus. Fluorescence Polarization Inhibition Assays (FPIAs) are discussed for the specific and sensitive detection and quantitation of Salmonella spp. cells from culture. An example of the detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHECS) by Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA), coupled with FP, down to the single cell level, within thirty minutes, is described.