Elucidation of the metabolism and pharmacology of 1,2,3-triazolines (TRs) led to the identification of the triazoline pharmacophore and the evolution of the aminoalkylpyridines (AAPs). The AAPs have no activity in the scMet test but are highly effective in the MES seizure test by the oral route. The AAPs bind to the σ1 receptor with low affinity, but high selectivity. They impair Glu release to the same extent as the triazolines and afforded a high degree of protection in the kindled rat. They show no affinity for the NMDA / PCP receptor sites; thus the toxic side effects of NMDA antagonists are absent in the σ selective AAPs. Variations of the heterocyclic unit, the alkyl chain and the amino group in the AAP leads, indicated that the 4-pyridyl substituent along with a methyl (alkyl) group, and a 4-C1, 3-C1 or 3,4-C12 substitution on the N-phenyl group, afforded the most active compounds. Amino group modification by acylation did not improve activity. The hydrazone compounds were the most active. Although the AAPs are very effective in the MES and the kindling models of epilepsy, they showed only low to moderate activity in protecting neuronal cells in stroke-induced cerebral ischemia. In the case of the TR compounds, even the least effective TR afforded 47% protection from neuronal injury. It is not known at this point, whether activity in both the MES and scMet tests, which would imply a role for both Glu and GABA, is a prerequisite for antiischemic activity.