Arterial Hypertension (AH) is characterized by reduced nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis, activation of the Renin- Angiotensin-Aldosteron-System (RAAS), vasoconstriction, and microvascular rarefaction. The latter contributes to target organ damage, especially in left ventricular hypertrophy, and may partially be due to impaired angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, the formation of new microvessels and microvascular networks from existing ones, is a highly regulated process that arises in response to hypoxia and other stimuli and that relieves tissue ischemia. In AH, angiogenesis seems impaired. However, blood pressure alone does not affect angiogenesis, and microvascular rarefaction is present in normotensive persons with a family history for AH. Normal or increased NO in several processes and diseases enables or enhances angiogenesis (e.g. in portal hypertension) and reduced NO biosynthesis (for example, in a rat model of AH, in other disease models in vivo, and in endothelial NO Synthase knock out mice) impairs angiogenesis. Angiogenic growth factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) induce NO and require NO to elicit an effect. Effector molecules and corresponding receptors of the RAAS either induce (Bradykinin, Angiotensin II) or perhaps inhibit angiogenesis. The pattern of Bradykinin- and Angiotensin II-receptor expression and the capacity to normalize NO biosynthesis may determine whether ACE-inhibitors, Angiotensin II-receptor antagonists and other substances affect angiogenesis. Reconstitution of a normally vascularized tissue by reversal of impaired angiogenesis with drugs such as ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor antagonists may contribute to successful treatment of hypertension-associated target organ damage, e.g. left ventricular hypertrophy.