In the field of conducting polymers, both poly(pyrrole) and poly(thiophene) have been investigated extensively and are used currently in a wide variety of applications including microelectronics, electrode materials, sensors and optoelectronics. Amongst these polymers, 3- and 3,4- substituted poly(pyrroles) and poly(thiophenes) have received significant attention in recent years as demonstrated by the increase in the number of patents and publications that describe their use. This review covers the development in the synthesis of 3- and 3,4- substituted poly(pyrroles) and poly(thiophenes) over the last 30 years, their polymerisation in addition to describing the material properties and applications of the resulting polymers. In particular, this review focuses upon the variety of methodologies employed for the synthesis of 3- and 3,4-substituted pyrroles and thiophenes as well as upon the broad range of functional groups that can be attached to the heterocyclic ring system in order to tailor the properties of the resulting polymers.
Keywords: 3,4-substituted pyrroles, thiophenes, poly(pyrrole), poly(thiophene), microelectronics, conducting polymers
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