One of the major advances in the recent history of the treatment of HIV infections has been the development of different classes of effective antiretroviral drugs. In particular, the reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors still represent the majority of the clinically used anti-HIV drugs and constitute the main backbone of currently employed combinatorial regimens. Highly active antiretroviral combination chemotherapy (HAART), combining RT and protease inhibitors, has proven the most effective approach to treat HIV disease, since it has been shown to markedly suppress viral replication and appearance of drug resistance for a relatively long period. These therapies, however, do not constitute a definitive cure, since they are not able to completely eradicate the virus from the infected individual. Beside drug toxicity problems, the emergence of drug resistance associated with the particular regimen employed further complicates the situation. This review will summarise the most recent achievements, as well as the future directions in the development of novel anti-RT compounds.