It has long been known that many chemical and physical stimuli imposed on the cell from its exterior environments elicit a long-lasting Ca2+ influx through yet poorly elucidated transmembrane pathways distinct from voltage-gated and fast ligand-gated Ca2+ entry channels, thereby activating and modulating a variety of cellular functions. Recent progress in molecularly identifying these pathways, initiated from the discovery of Drosophilas visual transduction mutants transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins, has begun to reveal the presence of an enormous superfamily of non-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The mammalian members of TRP superfamily are (except for two members) Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channels which are constitutively active or gated by a multitude of physicochemical stimuli such as receptor stimulation, phospholipids, oxidants, pheromones, cell volume change/shear stress, exogenous compounds affecting sensations, and changes in ambient temperature, acidity and osmolarity and cellular metabolic status. Owing to these diversities in activation and their broad distribution from brain to peripheral organs and tissues, TRP channels are now thought to be involved in divergent physiological functions including; pain and taste transductions; thermo- and mechano-sensations; regulation of mineral absorption/reabsorption; blood pressure, gut motility and airway responsiveness; cell proliferation/death, some of which seem tightly associated with specific genetic disorders. These features will render TRP channels the attractive novel molecular targets for future drug therapy. This paper briefly overviews the current knowledge available for these channels with a main interest in their possible linkage with in vivo function.