According to the World Health Organization the number of hypertensive people is estimated to be 600 million. Of them, a considerable proportion is untreated, while 12% to 15% is uncontrolled. The association between dietary habits and the development, as well as the control of hypertension has long been investigated in many clinical and epidemiological studies. Moreover, Mediterranean-style diet has been associated with reduced all cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. This dietary pattern is high in legumes, cereals, fruits and vegetables intake, moderate in the consumption of fish, wine, dairy products, mostly as cheese and yogurt, and low in the consumption of meat and its products. In addition, alcohol is consumed in moderation and almost always during meals. Mediterranean diet is low in saturated fat (less than about 9% of energy), with total lipid intake ranging from less than 30% to no more than 40% of energy. Moreover, the ratio of monounsaturated (mainly due to olive oil intake)-to-saturated fat is about 2. Nevertheless, the effect of this traditional diet on blood pressure levels has not been well understood and appreciated. In this review we summarize findings from observational and clinical studies that evaluated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the prevalence of hypertension.