At the beginning of 21st century, fifty years after discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double helix structure, scientific world is faced with a great progress in many disciplines of biological research, especially in the field of molecular biology and operating on nucleid acid molecules. Many molecular biology techniques have been implemented successfully in biology, biotechnology, medical science, diagnostics, and many more. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in improving old and designing new laboratory devices for PCR amplification and analysis of amplified DNA fragments. In parallel to these efforts, the nature of DNA molecules and their construction have attracted many researchers. In addition, some studies concerning mimicking living systems, as well as developing and constructing artificial nanodevices, such as biomolecular sensors and artificial cells, have been conducted. This review is focused on the potential of nanotechnology in health care and medicine, including the development of nanoparticles for diagnostic and screening purposes, the manufacture of unique drug delivery systems, antisense and gene therapy applications and the enablement of tissue engineering, including the future of nanorobot construction.