Prostaglandins (PGs) are a very important class of naturally occurring physiologically active substances, which have been the subject of continuous attention by biologists, pharmacists and chemists since their discovery in the 1930s. Pharmacological studies have shown that prostaglandins exhibit an extremely broad spectrum of activity such as on the smooth muscles of various organs, their mediating role in the central and peripheral nervous systems, in inflammatory processes, and their hormone-like and antihormonal activities. Due to the diversified biological activity and rapid metabolism of the natural prostaglandins, a lot of effort has been done to synthesize prostaglandin analogs. Particularly interesting are the prostaglandin analogs containing heteroatoms in the cyclopentane ring which have received a great deal of attention in relation to their potential biological properties and diversified biological activity. This article is dedicated to Prof. Sune K. Bergstrom (in memoriam) for his milestone contributions to prostaglandin research.
Keywords: cyclooxygenase, cyclopentanoic system, prostacyclin, thromboxane, prostanoids, corticosteroids
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