In Vivo Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Studies in Mice of Alternative Formulations for Local and Systemic Delivery of Paclitaxel: Gel, Film, Prodrug, Liposomes and Micelles

Author(s): Anand Babu Dhanikula, D. Renu Singh, Ramesh Panchagnula

Journal Name: Current Drug Delivery

Volume 2 , Issue 1 , 2005

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Abstract:

The aim of this study was to increase the understanding on the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution of paclitaxel as influenced by formulation approach. For this purpose, various formulations investigated in Swiss mice included liposomes, poloxamer 407 gel and chitosan film for subcutaneous route; and water-soluble methacrylate prodrug, liposomes and poloxamer micelles for systemic administration. During this study, the currently marketed formulation of Cremophor EL of paclitaxel was used as the reference. A highest plasma concentration following intravenous administration of paclitaxel was observed for rigid and Stealth® liposomes containing the prodrug while, least was for covalently incorporated paclitaxel micelles. Further, poloxamer micelles demonstrated both the highest mean residence time of 7.34 h and volume of distribution (VSS=4.82 and VZ=5.87 L / kg) for paclitaxel. This was followed by prodrug loaded Stealth® liposomes, which showed a mean residence time of 4.96 h but were least distributed into apparent physiological volume (VSS=2.12 and VZ=3.16 L / kg). These results clearly signify the role of formulation / excipient in drug disposition and possible interactions. Importantly, due to decrease in the clearance rate of drug, the area under curve values of paclitaxel increased by 1.64- and 2.5-fold for micellar and prodrug loaded Stealth® liposomal formulations, respectively over reference formulation. While thermoreversible gels served to decrease plasma concentration of paclitaxel (8-fold) after subcutaneous administration, systemic levels were totally absent after implantation of films. In tissue distribution studies, maximum percent of paclitaxel was observed in liver for reference formulation, conventional liposomes and micelles whereas highest levels of prodrug and Stealth® liposomes were in kidney and spleen, respectively. The novel formulations significantly altered tissue accumulation profiles of paclitaxel relative to the reference formulation, for example, reduction in uptake by heart from liposomes and micelles, as well as the major recognition mechanism for elimination. It is proposed that a combination therapy with liposomes and micelles of paclitaxel for systemic delivery along with implantation of chitosan film for local delivery, may serve not only to improve patient compliance by obliterating the need to administer Cremophor EL, but also increase patient survival.

Keywords: paclitaxel delivery, systemic, local, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution

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Article Details

VOLUME: 2
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2005
Page: [35 - 44]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1567201052772852

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