Optical biosensors have been commercially available since the early 1990s, and have been used extensively in many areas of research in the life sciences. Optical biosensors developed for drug analysis generally exploit the high selectivity of the antigen-antibody and drug-protein interaction. Optical biosensors can be made based on optical diffraction or electro-chemiluminescence. High throughput screening, (HTS) which includes automated preparation of a large number of samples and then screening of their properties in multi-well plates, improves the efficiency of research in many scientific areas, e.g., catalyst screening, food processing, chemical synthesis, drug discovery, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and toxicological and cell based screening. The three most common detection techniques used in HTS are UV-VIS absorbance, fluorescence and luminescence. In this review, we summarize some recent trends and developments in the construction of optical chemical biosensors used in high throughput screening of drugs. Also, we have included environmental, biological and other medical applications of biosensors.