Prolonged and repeated exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light (UV) leads not only to aging of the skin but also increases the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Damage of cells induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) light both at the DNA level and molecular level initiates the activation of transcription factor pathways, which in turn regulate the expression of a number of genes termed the “UV response genes”. Two such transcription factor families that are activated in this way are those of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) families. These two transcription factor families have been identified to be involved in the processes of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell survival and therefore play important roles in tumorigenesis. The study of these two transcription factor pathways and the cross-talk between them in response to UVB exposure may help with the development of new chemopreventive strategies for the prevention of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Keywords: Ultraviolet B-radiation (UVB), Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), transcription factor families, UV response genes, photochemoprevention
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