The advances in the cure rates observed in the oncology field in the past decades were not fully assembled by primary brain tumors. In this heterogeneous group of diseases, resistance to either chemotherapy or radiotherapy still is a major problem to be addressed. Several genetic and epigenetic events may directly influence the response to treatment in these tumors. Throughout recent discoveries, drug resistance in brain tumors was better understood as a final product of different and complexes pathways that interact and modulate cell performance to treatment. The last years experienced a new paradigm in the way brain tumor drug-resistance genes are elected out of the vast human genomic universe. In the former era, models of cell resistance that were documented on solid tumors other than brain were investigated at the central nervous systems counterpart. Nowadays, genomic-based hypothesis generation, supported by modern genetic technique tolls, seem effective in revealing new candidate-genes that might confer the resistance phenotype. Nevertheless, new treatment approaches and novel drugs based on the pharmacogenomic resistance profile, particularly for brain tumors, are just starting to become a reality for clinical purposes.