Lactoferrin (Lf), a mammalian iron scavenging defense protein, constitutively is present in exocrine secretions that consistently are exposed to microbial flora: milk, tears, tubotympanum and nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervicovaginal mucus, and seminal fluid. Additionally, Lf is promptly delivered by circulating neutrophils to sites of microbial invasion. At these sites, the protein effectively scavenges iron at pH values as low as 3.5. Recombinant bovine and human lactoferrin is now available for development into nutraceutical/preservative/pharma- ceutical products. Among conditions for which the products are being investigated are: angiogenesis; bone remodeling; food preservation; infection in animals, humans, plants; neoplasia in animals, humans; inflammation in intestine, joints; wound healing; as well as enhancement of antimicrobial and antineoplastic drugs, and prevention of iron induced oxidation of milk formula.