The technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning has been developed for more than 20 years. As a bridge between cytogenetics and molecular genetics, it leads to a number of applications: chromosome painting probe isolation, genetic linkage map and physical map construction, and expressed sequence tags generation. During those 20 years, this technique has not only been benefited from other technological advances but also cross-fertilized with other techniques. Today, it becomes a practicality with extensive uses. The purpose of this article is to review the development of this technique and its application in the field of genomic research. Moreover, a new method of generating ESTs of specific chromosomes developed by our lab is introduced. By using this method, the technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning would be more valuable in the advancement of genomic research.