Nowadays, infections with Candida albicans (C.a.) are very frequent, mostly in the so-called immunocompromised host. Therefore, research has been focused on the types of immune response elicited by C.a., with the aim to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Neutrophils and macrophages (Mφ) are deeply involved in the host defense against C.a., and also dendritic cells (DCs) seem to be very active in the host protection. In particular, DCs display an array of surface receptors able to interact with fungal components, even including Toll-like receptors. Here, we will illustrate the in vitro immune response of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with C.a. . In this test system, DCs exert phagocytic and killing activities with a magnitude similar to that of Mφ. Moreover, in the presence of autologous CD4+ cells, DCs produce T-helper (h) 1 type cytokines. This Th1 polarizing activity is mediated by interleukin- 12 released by infected CDs in the presence of CD4+ cells. Taken together, these data suggest a protective role played by DCs in the course of C.a. infection and the possibility to develop new strategies of immune intervention.