Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, being the maturation process dependent on the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) expressed on their surface. TLRs associated to adaptor proteins, following binding to PAMPs, are able to skew specific immune responses towards the T helper (h)1- or the Th2-type according to the antigenic stimulation involved. Of note, other receptors different from TLRs are expressed on DCs which are also able to recognize PAMPs. Among them, one should mention the DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin, the mannose receptor, Dectin-1 (the major β-glucan receptor) and NOD2. Finally, the possibility to interfere therapeutically with the TLR-dependent and -independent signaling pathways in DCs is reviewed. According to current literature, DC activation, their antigen uptake capacity and migration can be enhanced with different experimental procedures whose use in humans is still under evaluation. However, just recently a probiotic cocktail VSL3, successfully used in patients with pouchitis, seems to act on DCs, promoting abundant release of Interleukin- 10 in the gut. These novel therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of the signaling pathways in DCs seem to be encouraging for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.