Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize common motifs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), in microorganisms. Bacterial PAMPs are mainly distributed on cell-surfaces. Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are ubiquitous constituents of bacterial cell walls. Muramyldipeptide (MDP; N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) is a common and key structure of PGNs and exhibits most the of bioactivities of PGNs. Recently, the intracellular receptor for MDP was revealed to be NOD2. Another bioactive moiety of PGNs, diaminopimelic acid (DAP) containing desmuramylpeptides (DMPs), senses another intracellular receptor, NOD1. MDP-primed mice exhibited hyper-responses to endotoxin and other bacterial components, which sense Toll-like receptors (TLRs), although MDP itself does not exhibit apparent activity in mice. On the other hand, DMPs exhibited definite activity in mice, and the most powerful DMP, FK565, exhibited stronger priming activity than MDP. In human monocytic cells, both MDP and DMPs exhibited definite activities; marked synergistic interleukin (IL)-8 secretion was induced by DMPs and MDP in combination with synthetic TLR agonists, and suppression of the mRNA expressions of NOD1 and NOD2, respectively, by RNA interference specifically inhibited synergistic IL-8 secretion. In human dendritic cells (DCs), synergistic T helper type 1 responses are induced by combined stimulations of synthetic NOD and TLR agonists. Considering these findings altogether, in host-bacteria interactions, host cells should recognize bacteria via both TLRs and NODs, which might induce synergistic innate and adaptive immune responses.