Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a degenerative disease of the immune and central nervous systems, is an enormous world-wide health threat. No cure has been found, and research is aimed at developing chemotherapy against the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Chemotherapy for AIDS has progressed steadily in the past decade. However, new, effective, and less toxic chemotherapeutic agents are still needed. Plants, particularly anti-infective or immunomodulating herbal medicines, can serve as sources of new active leads to be further developed as anti-AIDS drug candidates. A lot of structurally different natural coumarins were found to display potent anti-HIV activity and continued progress is anticipated in the discovery of new leads and in the development of these agents as potential anti-AIDS drug candidates. Recent studies based on the account of various coumarins from plant sources and their analogs- synthetic coumarins, indicate that some of them serve as potent nonnucleoside RT-inhibitors, another as inhibitors of HIV-integrase or HIV-protease. The current review demonstrates the variety of coumarins of natural plant origin and synthetic coumarins having unique mechanism of action to one of the most important stage of HIV replication (RTinhibition). The merits of selecting potential anti-HIV agents to be used in rational combination drugs design and structure- activity relationships are discussed. The scientific community is looking actively for new drugs and combinations for treatment of HIV infection effective for first-line treatment, as well as against drug-resistant mutants.