The resurgence of tuberculosis and the surge of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have reaffirmed tuberculosis as a primary public health concern. In this review we describe some new findings on the pharmacological status of fluoroquinolones derivatives (Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin and Sitafloxacin), new macrolides (Clarithromycin, Azithromycin and Roxithromycin), new rifamycin derivatives (Rifapentin, Rifabutin and Rifalazil) and new oxazolidinones (Linezolid and PNU 100480). We describe also other type of agents that are being developed as antimycobacterial drugs. Some of these are under clinical investigation, while others are considered to be promising candidates for future development. Among them, nitroimidazopyrans, new ketolides, Isoxyl (ISO), pyrroles derived from BM 212, Mefloquine and Diarylquinoline R207910 are discussed. We also describe the mechanism of drug resistance in mycobacteria, as well as new potential targets.
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, tuberculosis, drug-resistance, new targets, promising drugs, anti-TB therap, drug-combinations
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