Paediatric surgeons were among the pioneers of laparoscopic surgery in the early 1970s. However, the vast potential of minimal access surgery in infants and children has only been more fully realised in the past decade. This has been brought about by increasing experience in paediatric laparoscopic procedures, and advances in video technology and miniaturised instruments. Very few complex paediatric surgical conditions are now beyond the scope of minimal access surgery. Benefits of minimal access surgery may include reduced postoperative pain, shortened length of stay, and faster resumption of normal activities. The question now is no longer whether laparoscopic surgery should be done in children, but what conditions should be treated laparoscopically. In this review, we will discuss the scope of laparoscopic surgery in children and focus on recent advance and controversial issues.