High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation is used in the treatment of chemosensitive malignancies. Cryopreservation of PBPC in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been the standard procedure in most institutions. Infusion of PBPC cryopreserved with DMSO can be associated with toxic reactions such as vomiting, cardiac dysfunction, anaphylaxia and acute renal failure. The grade of toxicity experienced by patients is related to the amount of DMSO present in the PBPC. Cryopreservation with lower DMSO concentrations would be expected to reduce the toxicity. In recent studies done with PBPC cells cryopreserved with 5%, 4% and 2% DMSO, using 10% DMSO as a reference control, CD34+ cells were investigated for preservation of viability, apoptosis, and necrosis. Also preservation of mature colony-forming (CFU) cells, specifically mature myeloid, erythroid progenitors, CFU-megakaryocytes and long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) were investigated, using 5% and 10% DMSO as cryoprotectant. All samples were frozen in a rate-controlled programmed freezer and stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen until used. Conclusion: 5% DMSO is the optimal concentration for cryopreserving human PBPC in vitro. Consequently, some hospitals have started using 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant for the autologous PBPC as a standard procedure.