The intricate interplay between the endothelium and immune cells has been well recognized in the context of immune responses. However, the fact that this inter-relation extends well beyond immune regulation is becoming increasingly recognized, with particular regards to the influence of the immune system on the essential endothelial process of angiogenesis, where the contribution of cytokines drives the angiogenic process. As angiogenesis is an important component of numerous pathological states, among these chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer, understanding the role of cytokines and chemokines in guiding new vessel formation provides key insight into novel therapeutic modalities. Here we review the actions of principal cytokines and chemokines on the angiogenic process and discuss how both can be considered potential pharmaceutical targets or pharmaceuticals themselves for modulation of angiogenesis in chronic inflammation associated with cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage, angiogenesis, chemokine, cytokine
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