Angiogenesis occurs in a wide range of conditions. As ischemic tissue usually depends on collateral blood flow from newly produced vessels, acceleration of angiogenesis should be of therapeutic value to ischemic disorders. Indeed, therapeutic angiogenesis reduced tissue injury in myocardial or limb ischemia. In ischemic stroke, on the other hand, angiogenic factors often increase vascular permeability and thus may deteriorate tissue damage. In order to apply safely the therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic stroke treatment, elucidating precise mechanism of brain angiogenesis is mandatory. In the present article, we review previous reports which investigated molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis. Endothelial cell mitogens, enzymes that degrade surrounding extracellular matrix, and molecules implicated in endothelial cells migration are induced rapidly in the ischemic brain. Their possible neuroprotective or injury exacerbating effects are discussed. Because therapeutic potential of angiogenic factors application had gained much attention, we here extensively reviewed relevant previous reports. In the future however, there is a need to consider angiogenesis in relation with regenerative medicine, as angiogenic factors sometimes possess neuron producing property.