The Development of the Zi’s Negative Perfectionism Scale (ZNPS) Fei Zi
Pp. 18-26 (9)
The aim of the study was to develop a questionnaire that measures negative perfectionism. Initial items
of the questionnaire were compiled based on a theoretical framework and interviews with experts. An
experimental sample of 411 college students was recruited to respond to the initial questionnaire. Exploratory
Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to examine the factor structure and the final items set of each factor. A test
sample of 427 college students was also recruited for further validation of the questionnaire including test-retest
reliability and convergent validity. The results of the EFA indicated a 5-factor structure labelled as
Procrastination, Fear of failure, Over conscious, Over planning or control, Overly high standards. The model
could explain nearly 50% of the total variance of the data. The Cronbach’s alpha values for these factors ranged
from 0.75 to 0.82 suggesting satisfactory internal consistency. The test-retest reliabilities also ranged from 0.61 to
0.81 with a two-week retest interval. Inter-instrumental correlations between the ZNPQ and the Frost
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) suggested reasonable convergent validity. These results provided
satisfactory psychometric evidence for the negative perfectionism questionnaire to be used in clinical settings.
Department of Psychology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR China.