Soluble Factors Mediating Innate Immune Responses to HIV Infection

Indexed in: Book Citation Index, Science Edition, BIOSIS Previews, Chemical Abstracts, Scopus, EBSCO.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection represents one of the biggest challenges of current years. However, scientists and physicians still do not have an efficient therapy for preventing or ...
[view complete introduction]

US $

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)

CD8 Antiviral Soluble Factors and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Control

Pp. 1-16 (16)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805006211001010001

Author(s): Nitin K. Saksena, Jing Qin Wu, Katherine Lau, Li Zhou, Maly Soedjono, Bin Wang


CD8 antiviral activity is a subject of intense studies. Two very critical anti-viral arms of HIVspecific CD8+ T cells (cytolytic and non-cytolytic) have been shown to play a significant role in protection against HIV and appear to associate with asymptomatic survival and slower disease progression. The cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL) recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells displaying MHC class-I proteins. Along with recognition and elimination of HIV-infected cells, CD8+ T cells potentially influence various stages in HIV life cycle. For instance the chemokines produced by CD8+ T cells block the entry of the virus into T cells and macrophages. The activated CD8+ T cells also produce soluble factors that act at the transcriptional level. In contrast, the non-cytolytic CD8+T cells from HIV+ individuals suppress virus replication in CD4+ T cells in vitro, involving interplay of soluble factors such as chemokines and other antiviral factors such as unidentified soluble CD8 Antiviral Factor (CAF), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and antiviral membrane-bound factor. In light of these factors, it is clear that the cell-mediated immune responses are critical in controlling HIV replication in vivo. Although the constituents of antiviral activity of CD8+ T cells remain largely elusive, the restoration of this activity during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and IL-2 treatment confers significant improvement in antiviral activity. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of antiviral potential of these cells and mechanisms involved in conferring this protective activity in HIV+ individuals and its overall relevance in HIV disease.