Cellular and Molecular Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Indexed in: Chemical Abstracts and Scopus

Over the past several decades the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically. The etiology of ASD remains an unsolved puzzle to scientists, physicians, pediatricians, ...
[view complete introduction]

US $

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Fluoride and Aluminum: Possible Risk Factors in Etiopathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Pp. 148-161 (14)

Anna Strunecka and Russell L. Blaylock


Fluoride and aluminum ions (Al3+) are considered as new ecotoxicological factors. While aluminum has been involved among the possible culprits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), fluoride is rarely considered. Al3+ is non-essential for all forms of life and serves no known biological role. Fluoride and Al3+ can elicit impairment of homeostasis, growth, development, cognition, and behavior. Several symptoms induced by Al3+ and/or fluoride overload can be seen in ASD. Several laboratory studies demonstrate that many effects primarily attributed to fluoride are caused by synergistic action of fluoride plus Al3+. In water solutions, Al3+ forms in the presence of fluoride, water soluble aluminofluoride complexes (AlFx). AlFx has been widely used as an analogue of phosphate groups to study heterotrimeric G proteins involvement. AlFx affects numerous receptors and signaling systems. It is evident that the long-term intake of low amounts of fluoride and Al3+ can evoke receptor malfunctions. The synergistic interactions of fluoride plus Al3+ may thus evoke several histological, neurological, biochemical, and behavioral symptoms of ASD. This chapter brings evidence that AlFx represents a hidden potential danger for pathogenesis of ASD.


Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.