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eISBN: 978-1-60805-044-4, 2010 ISBN: 978-1-60805-634-7
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical importance screening performed by ultrasonographic examination during the second trimester of pregnancy has shown disappointingly low detection rates mainly due to the difficulties in obtaining an adequate examination of the fetal heart. Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound of the fetal heart has been recently suggested as a tool to improve the detection rate of CHD by decreasing the dependency on operator skills required in two-dimensional ultrasound scans but up to now no practical manuals are available in describing its application in clinical practice for the study of fetal heart. The objective of this Ebook is to explain the role of 4D during second trimester examination and in fetuses with CHD. T
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, United States, United States
The recent introduction of 3D/4D ultrasonography to clinical practice presents an important milestone
in imaging technology. In this chapter, we will present the basic principles of 3D automated sonography as it
relates to the examination of the fetal heart. This approach holds great promise for simplifying the fetal cardiac
examination that may translate to increased prenatal detection of congenital heart disease.
3D Sonography, Fetal Echocardiography, Automated Multiplanar Imaging, Diagnostic Cardiac Planes.