4D Fetal Echocardiography

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical ...
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Analysis of Acquired Volumes: Methodological Approach

Pp. 50-61 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805044411001010050

Author(s): Greggory R DeVore


The purpose of this paper is to review how 3D/4D echocardiographic images can be manipulated to maximize the information regarding cardiac structure to improve the diagnostic yield of congenital heart defects. The following topics are discussed: (1) the differences between 3D and 4D ultrasound; (2) basic imaging principles of fourdimensional ultrasound when using spatial-temporal image correlation, real-time volume display, and matrix array technology; (3) analysis of acquired volumes using X,Y and Z rotation, the transverse sweep, the spin technique, tomographic imaging, rendering, inversion, and B-flow. The conclusion is that while the 3D and 4D volumes are easy to acquire, the user must understand the number of tools available to enhance the examination of the fetal heart.


4D ultrasound, Fetal echocardiography, Cardiac volumes, Methodology