4D Fetal Echocardiography

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical ...
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Rendering Cardiac Volumes in Three and Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography

Pp. 38-49 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805044411001010038

Author(s): Jimmy Espinoza


This chapter summarizes different approaches currently used to examine the fetal heart using three and four-dimensional ultrasonography with a particular emphasis on multiplanar display and novel rendering modalities. These new imaging modalities provide important insight into the normal and abnormal fetal cardiac anatomy and function and have the potential to reduce the operator dependency that characterizes twodimensional ultrasound.


Fetal Echocardiography, 4D Fetal Echocardiography, Volume Rendering.