Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Pp. 71-110 (40)
Arman Qamar, Kavitha S. Kotha, Octavian C. Ioachimescu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea (partial apnea) during sleep. Characteristic symptoms include loud snoring, witnessed apneas, gasping and choking sensations at night, nocturnal awakenings resulting in poor sleep quality, fragmented sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography is the “gold standard” test for the diagnosis of OSA. The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI) is the metric most commonly used to determine the severity of OSA. AHI between 5 and 14 represents mild OSA, between 15 and 29 moderate OSA and 30 or higher is severe OSA. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the preferred option for the treatment of moderate to severe OSA and optional for mild OSA.