The Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow Microenvironment
Pp. 128-137 (10)
Aldo M. Roccaro,
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that characteristically
involves extensive infiltration of bone marrow (BM), with the formation of plasmacytomas, as clusters
of malignant plasma cells inside or outside the BM milieu. Despite limits to our understanding of the
molecular events of neoplastic transformation in MM, substantial advances have been made in
understanding the biology of the disease through the study of the BM microenvironment, which appears
to be fundamental for the proliferation, survival, and resistance of myeloma; providing the preclinical
evidences for targeting MM cells and BMSCs as an anti-tumor strategy in this disease.
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR),
extracellular matrix (ECM), adhesion molecules, interleukin-6, insulin-like-growth-factor 1, vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF), bone marrow niches, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand
(APRIL), stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), hypoxia, BM endothelial cells (BMECs), angiogenesis.