Awake Thoracic Surgery

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Awake thoracic surgery is a new surgical field that is set to expand in the near future. Employing sole epidural or local anaesthesia in fully awake patients renders many thoracic surgical procedures ...
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Awake Thymectomy

Pp. 155-164 (10)

Isao Matsumoto and Makoto Oda and Go Watanabe


Recently, several major thoracic procedures performed in awake patients have been reported. In order to reduce the adverse effects of general anesthesia and the cost, Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia (TEA) has been employed to perform such awake thoracic surgery procedures. Awake procedure under TEA can be performed even in endoscopic thymectomy. The postoperative recovery is fast, and surgery can be performed on patients in whom general anesthesia is difficult. Herein we discuss awake thymectomy procedure and perioperative management for patients and describe the techniques in detail.


Awake thymectomy, thoracic epidural anesthesia, endoscopic surgery, robotic surgery, intraoperative pneumothorax.


Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.