Role of Biomarkers in Developing Therapies for Glioblastoma Multiforme
Pp. 141-163 (23)
Brain and nervous system cancer account for 28,142 new cases as of
GLOBOCAN 2018. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a quite lethal and aggressive
form of tumor which initiates from the cerebrum glial cells. Additionally, due to its
aggressive nature of the infection, it is ranked as grade IV of astrocytoma by WHO and
accounts for the most malignant cases of gliomas. The current standard of care includes
surgical elimination of the tumor followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ).
The recent research focuses to identify its novel biomarkers as therapeutic targets.
Currently, available drugs can be potentiated with adjuvant therapy. These include the
inculcation of immunotherapy, phytochemicals, and chemotherapy. However, due to
the tumor heterogeneity in GBM, there is a development of resistance majorly against
the chemotherapeutic drugs. The most significant reason behind this is alteration and
mutation in molecular pathways involved in functions like angiogenesis, migration,
proliferation, and several other events. Therefore, moving towards personalized
medicine, identification and characterization of biomarkers can promote prediction,
diagnosis as well as treatment. Several biomarkers in molecular as well as metabolic
pathways such as methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), receptor tyrosine
kinase (RTK) pathways, TP53/MDM2/P14 and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) for
GBM have been identified. Apart from these, there are miRNA, GBM cancer stem
cells (GSCs), and immune checkpoints, which can be used as biomarkers. This chapter
reviews the research and progress of the biomarkers as an aid for GBM therapeutics.
GBM cancer stem cells, Glial cells, Immunotherapy, miRNA,