Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Volume: 12

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in anti-cancer drug design and discovery. In each volume, eminent scientists contribute reviews ...
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Role of Biomarkers in Developing Therapies for Glioblastoma Multiforme

Pp. 141-163 (23)

DOI: 10.2174/9789811487385121120007

Author(s): Vijeta Prakash, Reema Gabrani*

Abstract

Brain and nervous system cancer account for 28,142 new cases as of GLOBOCAN 2018. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a quite lethal and aggressive form of tumor which initiates from the cerebrum glial cells. Additionally, due to its aggressive nature of the infection, it is ranked as grade IV of astrocytoma by WHO and accounts for the most malignant cases of gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgical elimination of the tumor followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). The recent research focuses to identify its novel biomarkers as therapeutic targets. Currently, available drugs can be potentiated with adjuvant therapy. These include the inculcation of immunotherapy, phytochemicals, and chemotherapy. However, due to the tumor heterogeneity in GBM, there is a development of resistance majorly against the chemotherapeutic drugs. The most significant reason behind this is alteration and mutation in molecular pathways involved in functions like angiogenesis, migration, proliferation, and several other events. Therefore, moving towards personalized medicine, identification and characterization of biomarkers can promote prediction, diagnosis as well as treatment. Several biomarkers in molecular as well as metabolic pathways such as methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, TP53/MDM2/P14 and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) for GBM have been identified. Apart from these, there are miRNA, GBM cancer stem cells (GSCs), and immune checkpoints, which can be used as biomarkers. This chapter reviews the research and progress of the biomarkers as an aid for GBM therapeutics.

Keywords:

GBM cancer stem cells, Glial cells, Immunotherapy, miRNA, Molecular pathway.