Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Volume: 12

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in anti-cancer drug design and discovery. In each volume, eminent scientists contribute reviews ...
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Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Pp. 101-140 (40)

DOI: 10.2174/9789811487385121120006

Author(s): Stepan M. Esagian, Ioannis A. Ziogas, Georgios Tsoulfas*


This chapter will present the most recent advances in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Immunotherapy is a rapidly developing and promising field of cancer treatment with many applications, including HCC. In this chapter, we will explain the rationale behind the use of ICIs in the management of HCC by highlighting their molecular mechanisms of action and interactions with the tumor microenvironment. We will also present the most recent data for their safety and efficacy in the resectable, unresectable and posttransplantation setting. Furthermore, we will assess their current status according to the most recent HCC management guidelines and how they compare with other available treatments. The proposed synergy of ICIs with other molecular targeted agents, such as vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, will also be analyzed. Finally, we will discuss the current limitations and challenges of ICIs and explore future research perspectives that may solidify their role as a standard HCC therapeutic option, in an era of personalized cancer treatment.


Anti-CTLA4, Anti-VEGF, Atezolizumab, Bevacizumab, Camlerizumab, Durvalumab, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Immune checkpoint inhibitors, Ipilimumab, Nivolumab, PD-1 inhibitor, PD-L1 inhibitor, Pembrolizumab, Ramucirumab.