Exploring the COVID-19 Potential Targets: Big Challenges to Quest Specific Treatment

Author(s): Harekrishna Roy, Asha Gummadi, Bhabani Shankar Nayak*, Sisir Nandi*, Anil Kumar Saxena*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 21 , Issue 15 , 2021


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Abstract:

Background: The novel strain SARS-CoV-2 of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) became pandemic at the end of 2019 with an unprecedented global crisis by infecting around 11 million people in more than 200 countries. The condition has now been provoked by the demand, supply, and liquidity shocks that COVID-19 has attacked the lives of a vast population.

Objectives: Researchers are therefore trying to encode and understand the viral genome sequence along with various potential targets to explore the transmission mechanism and the mode of treatment for COVID-19. The important structural proteins such as nucleocapsid protein (N), membrane protein (M), an envelope protein (E), and spike protein (S) related to COVID-19 are discussed in this manuscript.

Methods: The topology of these various targets has been explored utilizing structure-based design and crystallographic studies.

Results: The literature reported that the N-protein processes the viral genome to the host cell during replication. The “N-terminal domain” and “C-terminal domain” contribute towards localization in the endoplasmic region and dimerization respectively. The M protein determines the shape of coronavirus and also assists the S protein to integrate with the Golgi-endoplasmic region complex leading to the stabilization of the virion. The smallest hydrophobic viroporin termed “E” takes part in morphogenesis and pathogenesis during intracellular infection. The viral spike (S) protein attaches the cellular receptors and initiates virus-cell membrane fusions. The main protease in the proteolytic process during viral gene expression and replication has also been discussed.

Conclusion: Currently, there is no permanent cure and treatment of COVID-19 hence researchers are repurposing a suitable combination of drugs including antiviral, antimalarial, antiparasitic, and antibacterial, hypertensive receptor blockers, immunosuppressants, anti-arthritis drugs, including ayurvedic formulations. In brief, it is justified that, for complete recovery, there is a need for deep and elaborate studies on genomic sequences and invading mechanisms in the host cell.

Keywords: COVID-19, Nucleocapsid protein (N), Membrane protein (M), An envelope protein (E), Spike protein (S), Quest of COVID-19 potential treatment.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 15
Year: 2021
Published on: 27 July, 2021
Page: [1337 - 1359]
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/1568026621666210727162324
Price: $65

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