Background: The novel strain SARS-CoV-2 of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) became
pandemic at the end of 2019 with an unprecedented global crisis by infecting around 11 million people
in more than 200 countries. The condition has now been provoked by the demand, supply, and
liquidity shocks that COVID-19 has attacked the lives of a vast population.
Objectives: Researchers are therefore trying to encode and understand the viral genome sequence
along with various potential targets to explore the transmission mechanism and the mode of treatment
for COVID-19. The important structural proteins such as nucleocapsid protein (N), membrane protein
(M), an envelope protein (E), and spike protein (S) related to COVID-19 are discussed in this manuscript.
Methods: The topology of these various targets has been explored utilizing structure-based design
and crystallographic studies.
Results: The literature reported that the N-protein processes the viral genome to the host cell during
replication. The “N-terminal domain” and “C-terminal domain” contribute towards localization in the
endoplasmic region and dimerization respectively. The M protein determines the shape of coronavirus
and also assists the S protein to integrate with the Golgi-endoplasmic region complex leading to the
stabilization of the virion. The smallest hydrophobic viroporin termed “E” takes part in morphogenesis
and pathogenesis during intracellular infection. The viral spike (S) protein attaches the cellular
receptors and initiates virus-cell membrane fusions. The main protease in the proteolytic process during
viral gene expression and replication has also been discussed.
Conclusion: Currently, there is no permanent cure and treatment of COVID-19 hence researchers are
repurposing a suitable combination of drugs including antiviral, antimalarial, antiparasitic, and antibacterial,
hypertensive receptor blockers, immunosuppressants, anti-arthritis drugs, including ayurvedic
formulations. In brief, it is justified that, for complete recovery, there is a need for deep and elaborate
studies on genomic sequences and invading mechanisms in the host cell.