Oxidative Stress in the Early Stage of Psychosis

Author(s): Antonio Ventriglio*, Antonello Bellomo, Favale Donato, Bonfitto Iris, Vitrani Giovanna, Di Sabatino Dario, Cuozzo Edwige, Di Gioia Ilaria, Mauro Pettorruso, Giampaolo Perna, Alessandro Valchera, Domenico De Berardis

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 21 , Issue 16 , 2021


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Abstract:

Background: In the past few decades, increasing evidence in the literature has appeared describing the role of the antioxidant defense system and redox signaling in the multifactorial pathophysiology of psychosis. It is of interest to clinicians and researchers alike that abnormalities of the antioxidant defense system are associated with alterations of cellular membranes, immune functions and neurotransmission, all of which have some clinical implications.

Methods: This narrative review summarizes the evidence regarding oxidative stress in the early stages of psychosis. We included 136 peer-reviewed articles published from 2007 to 2020 on PubMed EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar.

Results: Patients affected by psychotic disorders show a decreased level of non-enzymatic antioxidants, an increased level of lipid peroxides, nitric oxides, and a homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism. In particular, a significantly reduced antioxidant defense has been described in the early onset first episode of psychosis, including reduced levels of glutathione. Also, it has been shown that a decreased basal low-antioxidant capacity correlates with cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, mostly related to glutamate-receptor hypofunction. In addition, atypical antipsychotic drugs seem to show significant antioxidant activity. These factors are critical in order to treat cases of first-onset psychosis effectively.

Conclusion: This systematic review indicates the importance that must be given to anti-oxidant defense systems.

Keywords: Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Thioredoxin, N-acetylcysteine, Oxidative Stress, Schizophrenia, First Episode of Psychosis (FEP).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 16
Year: 2021
Published on: 30 June, 2021
Page: [1457 - 1470]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1568026621666210701105839
Price: $65

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