COVID-19: Diagnosis and Management-Part II

COVID-19: Diagnosis and Management-Part II

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has spread throughout the globe and much time has passed since it was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19: ...
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Vaccine Development

Pp. 125-168 (44)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681088051121010008

Author(s): Priya Sharma, Shivani Joshi, Aishwarya Joshi, Nikunj Tandel, Rajeev K. Tyagi*

Abstract

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call pointing towards the vulnerability of humankind as it has outstretched its arms to almost all the continents, sparing few socially isolated ones. The highly contagious nature, ultra-stable genetic makeup, novel modifications in open reading frame (ORF) region, air-born route of transmission, and ability to cross the species barrier prove the potential of COVID-19 to elicit the global pandemic situation. In current times, when even known antibiotics for combating several diseases are being rendered inefficacious owing to the rising multidrug resistance among pathogenic strains, the panacea to a wide array of diseases can be vaccination. A prominent characteristic for COVID-19 vaccine development is that numerous technologies from lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulation, dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccines, antigen-presenting cells (artificial-APCs)-based vaccines, and DNA plasmid-based platforms to viral vector approaches are being evaluated for the cause. Certain vaccine development technologies may be better suited for some parts of the global population, while others may prove to be more efficacious for the other population subtypes. This may not only be arising due to geographical or ethnic distinctions, but also physiological differences such as the presence of comorbidities, immune profile of subjects, etc. In this chapter, we attempt to bring forth the various approaches or molecular platforms that have been taken up or proposed for the development of a vaccine against coronavirus disease. We also attempt to elaborate on the pros and cons associated with each of the approaches that may be feasible due to the distinctions in the various population subtypes.

Keywords:

Air-borne transmission, Animal model, APCs-based vaccines, Artificial-APCs, Comorbidities, COVID-19, DCs-based vaccines, DNA plasmidbased platforms, Genetic makeup multidrug resistance, Global population, Immune profile, Lipid nanoparticle (LNP), Molecular platforms, Novel modifications, Pathogenic strains, Physiological differences, Population subtypes, Vaccine development, Viral vector approaches.