The article provides an overview of modern concepts of induced sputum analysis and a
description of the methodology and protocols for the collection of induced sputum in adults and
children. This paper describes the cellular composition of induced sputum in healthy people and in
patients with asthma in detail, analyses the significance of the sputum eosinophil count as a prognostic
and diagnostic criterion and the role of other cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, basophils.
In this article, we review a number of asthma biomarkers of inflammation and remodeling
of the airways in asthma, which can be determined in sputum (anaphylatoxin C3a, clusterin, periostin).
In addition, we summarize recent data about asthma phenotypes and describe the possibilities
of using induced sputum analysis as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for personalized anti-inflammatory
therapy for asthma.