Natural compounds are the prominent sources for the synthesis of abundant biologically
active substances in medicinal chemistry. Camphor exists in two enantiomeric forms
i.e., R and S, or both, which are readily obtainable. Camphor is a small molecule with chirality
property that binds to some active site, together with its low cost and convenience to transform
into synthetically useful derivatives and one of the most important monoterpenoids
widely spread in plants and has been used as starting material for the various camphor based
derivatives which exhibit several biological activities include antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant,
analgesic and anti-cancer. Many of those simple derivatives are commercially available
in the form of camphor sulfonic acid or ketopinic acid that can be easily be produced from
camphor. This compound is primarily used as a chiral starting material in the enantiospecific
synthesis of natural products is because of its available methods for the direct or indirect introduction of functionality
at C-3, C-5, C-8, C-9, and C-10 carbon atoms. In this study, heterocyclic compounds derived from camphor are arranged
in different groups as Camphor-Derived Simple Heterocycles, Fused Camphor-Derived Heterocycles, Spiro
Camphor-Derived Heterocycles, Ring Expanded Camphor-Derived Heterocycles and Camphor derived metal complexes.
This study summarizes the transformations of camphor and its derivatives along with their biological activities.