Imaging and Clinical Features of Neurocutaneous Melanosis in the Pediatric Population

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Mormina Enricomaria, Granata Francesca, Vinci Sergio Lucio*, Coglitore Alessandra, Caragliano Antonio Armando, Tessitore A., Longo Marcello, Visalli Carmela

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews

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Background: Neurocutaneous Melanosis (NCM) is a rare nonfamilial phakomatosis characterized by the presence of congenital melanocytic nevi and abnormal melanocyte infiltration of the leptomeninges.

Objective and Methods: This paper shows the importance of early diagnosis and the most important imaging features of the disease on CT and MR scans. PubMed database was searched from January 1972 to September 2020. Papers including imaging findings of NCM, clinical, follow-up, and treatment features were collected, selecting only 89 studies.

Discussion: NCM is a term used for the first time by van Bogaert in 1948. It refers to a condition caused by an error during morphogenesis and migration leading to leptomeningeal melanocytic accumulation. Although histological findings are the gold standard for diagnosis confirmation, neuroimaging and clinical features strongly support the suspect of NCM. Localization and extension of the lesions are predictive of neurological manifestations related to increased intracranial pressure, mass lesions, or spinal cord compression. CT demonstrates sites of increased density in the anterior temporal lobe, mainly the amygdala, thalami, cerebellum, and frontal lobes base. However, MRI is the best imaging method to diagnose central nervous system lesions, often appearing as T1-short signal areas of the cerebral parenchyma, indicative of central nervous system melanosis. MRI can also reveal associated intracranial and intraspinal abnormalities.

Conclusion: Early imaging, when available, is helpful if NCM suspect is raised and may be of guidance in comparing later studies. NCM requires a multidisciplinary approach since it is a multisystem disease with a genetic component.

Keywords: Neurocutaneous melanosis, multiple congenital melanocytic nevi, cutaneous neuro-melanosis, non-melanotic neoplasms, phakomatosis, meningeal melanomatosis, children, pediatric.

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Published on: 26 May, 2021
(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666210527091109
Price: $95

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